What are Mind and Brain?
The layman's understanding is that the Mind is situated in the Brain, or to say Mind and Brain are the same.
An ancient model of the mind known as the Five-Aggregate Model, described in Buddhist teachings, explains the mind as continuously changing sense impressions and mental phenomena.
Considering this model, it is possible to understand that it is the constantly changing sense impressions and mental phenomena (i.e., the mind) that experience/analyze all external phenomena in the world as well as all internal phenomena including the body anatomy, the nervous system as well as the organ Brain. This conceptualization leads to two levels of analyses: (i) analyses conducted from a third-person perspective on how the brain works, and (ii) analyzing the moment-to-moment manifestation of an individual's mind-stream (analyses conducted from a first-person perspective). Considering the latter, the manifestation of the mind-stream is described as happening in every person all the time, even in a scientist who analyses various phenomena in the world, including analyzing and hypothesizing about the organ Brain.
The Buddha (480–400 B.C.E), the founder of Buddhism, described the mind and the body as depending on each other in a way that two sheaves of reeds were to stand leaning against one another and taught that the world consists of mind and matter which work together, interdependently. Buddhist teachings describe the mind as manifesting from moment to moment, one thought moment at a time as a fast-flowing stream.
Substance dualism, or Cartesian dualism, most famously defended by René Descartes, argues that there are two kinds of foundation: mental and physical. This philosophy states that the mind can exist outside of the body, and the body cannot think. Substance dualism is important historically for having given rise to much thought regarding the famous mind-body problem.
Suppose we accept this paradigm that the Mind and Brain are the same, then after death, when the body is exhumed, buried, or burnt, the Brain parishes with it, then where do all the memories of that life go? They should also perish, but they do not. This is what we call Past Life memories and or karmic cycles or deeds. This is how the Human cycle moves life after life. In English, this is called Reincarnation deeds.
This generates the thought that the Mind and Brain are two different entities. The mind remains after death, whereas the Brain perishes. The question arises then where is Mind situated and why we cannot see the Mind.
According to us, a Mind is a metaphysical form of energy, which, like the soul, does not perish and exists life after life. A brain is a physical form of energy, which is a part of this body.
The mind is considered to be some form where our thoughts are generated, whereas the Brain is an organ, which is present in our body and transforms these thoughts into physical actions.
The mind is invisible whereas the Brain is visible.
All religious cults, healing modalities, and intelligent personalities do believe and accept what has been said above.
So, the Mind is an entity, which is present and exists, where our thoughts, memory, imagination, consciousness, reason, perception, feelings, wishes, or ideas are generated. The philosopher Gilbert Ryle called Mind the "Ghost in the Machine". He said the idea that it was separate from the Brain was the mistaken "Official Doctrine". However, some think that the Mind is separate from the body and is called Soul. For science, what others call the Mind is entirely caused by the workings of the Brain.
Thought is when, according to our plans and desires, we try to absorb what happens around us, so that we can deal with it effectively. Thinking is using information, forming concepts, solving problems, reasoning, and making choices.
Memory is when we store information to be recalled later when required.
Imagination is the ability to invent, assume or draw outside worlds, reasons, ideas, perceptions, and feelings, based on our experiences.
Consciousness is knowing that we exist and the world exists, and being able to understand what is happening around us.
Now, these thoughts in the form of messages so generated by my Mind are picked up by my Brain. The brain conveys them to different body parts to perform certain actions and functions. Once these actions are performed; the body parts performing these actions do transmit back the results achieved to the Mind. Then only the process is complete. So to sum up, there is constant interaction between Mind and Brain.
Now the question comes that how the Mind and Brain are thus connected and these messages and actions are exchanged with performance.
Let us first understand the human body. The human body is made up of cells, muscles tissues, fluid tubes, etc. These cells have various shapes depending on the body parts. Out of various body parts, one of the most important and widely spread is the nervous system, which constitutes of Brain, Spinal cord, and nerves. It is the network of nerves that is spread over in whole body, connecting each cell or muscle to the central nervous system the Brain and the Spinal cord.
The characteristics of this nervous system are that it works on electrical charge flowing from the Brain to the body parts, the cells and muscles, and back. This electrical charge makes the cell and muscles move to bring about or perform an activity. So to sum up the whole body is working moving, and responding to this electrical charge.
Now coming back to Mind, as we said that a Mind is a metaphysical form of energy, let us study what we mean by that. For this, we have to go back to our basic science, where we started with the understanding that the smallest particle that exists is an Atom.
Thus Atom is constituted of Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons. Further advancement in science said that these are further broken down into Quark. These Quarks are further broken down to the latest theory, “The Super String theory”, which says that these are electrically charged vibrating particles. Therefore all matter is made up of these vibrating electrically charged particles and they form the energy which exists in this universe.
Thus the postulation of Albert Einstein goes that energy is constant and cannot be created or destroyed. It is only changing its form.
As per the Super String theory, there are possibly only two basic classes of ‘particles’ in the universe – Fermions and Bosons. All elementary particles (Quarks, Leptons, Guage Bosons, Static Bosons, etc.) will fall under either of these two. Not only elementary particles but also composite particles like Baryons (Eg: Protons, Neutrons, etc.) will also fall under this basic classification of all particles into Fermions and Bosons. The scheme of Quantum Field Theory is that Fermions interact by exchanging Bosons.
Fermions and Bosons: Diagramatic Representations
Fermions: Characteristics and Examples
All fermions have half-integer multiple spins (ie 1/2, 3/2, 5/2…). Fermions are subject to the Pauli Exclusion Principle which states that no particle can exist in the same state in the same place at the same time. Thus Fermions are solitary. Only one Fermion may occupy any quantum state – the Fermionic solitariness of electrons is responsible for the structure of molecular matter (in fact for all ‘structure’ in the universe). The degeneracy pressure that stabilizes white dwarf and neutron stars is a result of fermions resisting further compression towards each other. Fermions obey Fermi–Dirac statistics.
Fermions are usually associated with matter while Bosons are the force carriers.
Examples of Fermions: Leptons (Electrons, Neutrinos, etc), Quarks (Up, Down, etc.), Baryons (Protons, Neutrons, etc.)
The difference between quarks and leptons is that quarks have a color charge (and therefore interact with the strong force) and leptons do not. This means that gluons will react with quarks but not with leptons.
Quarks are always accompanied by gluons and are always in sets where their total color charge equals zero. Quarks are what make up composite particles like hadrons (heavy) and mesons (medium).
Bosons: Characteristics and Examples
All bosons have either zero spin or an even integer spin. Bosons are gregarious. Bosons may occupy the same quantum state as other bosons, for example in the case of laser light which is formed of coherent, overlapping photons. In fact, the more bosons there are in a state the more likely that another boson will join that state (Bose condensation). Fermions are usually associated with matter while Bosons are the force carriers.
The name boson was coined by Paul Dirac to commemorate the contribution of the Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose in developing, with Einstein, Bose-Einstein statistics—which theorizes the characteristics of elementary particles.
Steen Ingemann on Fermions and Bosons
The electrons belong to the class of elementary particles called leptons. The leptons and quarks together constitute the class called fermions. According to the Standard Model, all mass consists of fermions. Whether the fermions combine to form a table, a star, a human body, or a flower or do not combine at all depends on the elementary forces - the electromagnetic, the gravitational, the weak, and the strong forces. According to the Standard Model, all force is mediated by the exchange of (gauge) bosons. The electromagnetic force is mediated by the exchange of photons, the strong force by the exchange of gluons while the weak force is mediated by the exchange of W and Z bosons.
– Steen Ingemann
The same postulate stands good in the current scenario we are going to talk about. Scientists have proved that these charged particles are of two types. One is those which are rounded and complete. These are free-flowing. They are vibrating at a very high speed or frequency and thus are not visible to the naked eyes. Free-flowing means that they float freely into The same postulate stands good in the current scenario we are going to talk about. Scientists have proved that these charged particles are of two types. One is those which are rounded and complete. These are free-flowing. They are vibrating at a very high speed or frequency and thus are not visible to the naked eyes. Free-flowing means that they float freely into the atmosphere of this universal space. These have been named Bosons.
The other type of these electrically charged particles is half in the shape of Bosons. These are not free flowing, and they are stuck to some medium. Being stuck to some medium, they have a low frequency of vibration and thus become visible. These are called Fermions.
These Fermions are the part of the matter that our naked eyes can see. Thus they form all the matter that we can see, feel, touch, and weigh.
This way the Bosons are called the metaphysical form of energy, which is free flowing and Fermions are the Physical form of energy that is stuck and is governed by the gravitational pull. Both these are electrical charge particles and interact with each other. After studying the science of the minutest form of energy, which is the vibrating electrical charge in two different forms, we can connect our concept of Mind and Brain connection